Mejias U. In addition, the focus on propaganda as a driver of participation could be considered a meeting point between political and commercial interests, since increasing engagement with a given object of content is a path towards more pageviews and more surrender of personal data. The historical origins of Nazi propaganda can be traced by turning backwards and investigating the Hitler’s Mein Kampf. Toler A. “Open” artifacts offer a window onto a limitless world of sources and an unrestricted number of channels. We're all subject to cognitive biases, logical fallacies, and plain old illusions. Laswell. Subjective validation, sometimes called personal validation effect, is a cognitive bias by which a person will consider a statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any personal meaning or significance to them. Propaganda that relies on the participatory design of digital networks is best explained by looking at the link between two interrelated processes: the socialization of political conflicts and the internalization of political conflicts. Propaganda is a form of communication that attempts to influence the behavior of people by affecting their perceptions, attitudes and opinions. The same researchers argue that “States can rely on citizens’ do-it-yourself disinformation campaigns to maintain the status quo.” Mejias and Vokuev (2017) point out that “…social media can also give ordinary citizens the power to generate false and inaccurate information,” while “propaganda is co-produced by regimes and citizens.” Finally, Khaldarova and Pantti (2016) explore participatory verification of data, where an online initiative such as the StopFake platform “mobilizes ordinary Internet users to engage in detecting and revealing fabricated stories and images on the Ukraine crisis” and address this as “Crowdsourced Information Warfare.”. To sum up, propaganda is not only a way to change a person’s perception of the environment via symbolic means, but also a way to change the behavior of a target audience in order to change the environment. The Fine Art of Propaganda. On Facebook, one of the most common acts of disconnection is unfriending. Wiley says, “If you want to fundamentally change society, you first have to break it. Disconnecting with Social Networking Sites. Propaganda dominated in the social life of people. (1989). He stated that propaganda is a method to convey biased data through the application of media. McCombs also emphases that salience is essential for building the cohesiveness of particular community. “Peer-to-peer propaganda” is a situation where “Ordinary people experience the propaganda posts as something shared by their own trusted friends, perhaps with comments or angry reactions, shaping their own opinions and assumptions” (Haigh et al., 2017). According to Shkurko, “we perceive others and regulate our behaviour according to how we position ourselves and others in the social world by ascribing them to a particular social label.” In that light, internalization means that digitally-native propaganda is able to shape the structure of categorization. They emphasized that agenda setting assists to explain the distention of propaganda. It comes into action, when the individuals are under influence of … He emphasizes that this theory describes the third-party effect, when people start being afraid that certain problems might cause their separation from the society. Social networking platforms combine news consumption with social interaction, turning social interaction into a mechanism of content proliferation and selective amplification (Zuckerman, 2018). Traditional media relied on physical artifacts such as newspapers or TV, so content consumption was mostly a solitary activity rather than a social one. Disinformation and the Media: The Case of Russia and Ukraine Media. (1972). & Gal, N. (2018). It is very easy to cut social ties online, as most of us know by now. & Dvir-Gvirsman, S. (2015). A., & Vokuev, N. E. (2017). As a consequence, propaganda infiltrates our most intimate spaces, where users interact with their laptops and mobile devices. a) development of perception concerning the majority opinion support; b) desire to express certain viewpoint because of the perceived support; e) silencing of majority, and conflicting minority, which change their places. Despite infrastructural support and major financial investment, state-sponsored TV channels have become less popular than YouTube (Ostrovsky, 2019). When combined with crowdsourcing, propaganda offers a double effect. In the case of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, considerable evidence suggests that the conflict had a robustly destructive impact on strong ties, including those between relatives, close friends and classmates. Propaganda works by manipulating and exploiting our emotions and needs. (2019). Silverstone, R. (1994). In the book, Irina describes a two-day exchange of online messages between herself and her classmate Alexander, who lives in Russia. One may argue, for instance, that a massive digitally mediated participation of users in the Ukrainian conflict was essential in order to protect their country from a potential security threat. These forms of participation were shaped by the perception of the conflict as it was communicated via digital media on both the Russian and Ukraine side. In the mid 1920’s, the main newspapers of the country devoted a great space depicting the outside world. The Mediational Perspective on Digital Technology: Understanding the Interplay between Technology, Mind and Action. Researcher Scharmm, who was the veteran of Federal Government’s propaganda in 1955 added to the original definition of propaganda, the significance of media. Researcher Curnalia in her article mentions that one of the fist definitions of this notion in the 20th century was the definition produced by Lasswell in 1927. The Imaginaries of RuNet: The Change of the Elites and the Construction of Online Space. Crowdsourced War: The Political and Military Implications of Ukraine’s Volunteer Battalions 2014-2015. Don't believe it? The end of this war brought about changes to the world. Cyclones in cyberspace: Information shaping and denial in the 2008 Russia-Georgia war. Over the last century, propaganda has gradually moved from open squares and public places to our homes. Cambridge, MA. Dietram Shaffele is one of the main researchers, who has dedicated his works to the investigation of the framing theory and its media effects. As a result, one may argue that propaganda has become less interested in changing people’s opinion about a specific object or in convincing people that it is either truth or fiction. This suggests that participatory technologies that offer a broad range of ways to participate in conflict both increase socialization of conflict (meaning an increase in the scope of participation), but also create a psychological change in users. The notion of “conflict socialization” was introduced by E. E. Schattschneider (1975), who argues that “the outcome of all conflict is determined by the scope of its contagion,” while “the number of people involved in any conflict determines what happens.... every increase or reduction in the number of participants, affects the result.” The notion of the scope of contagion highlights the role of the crowd in the context of political conflicts. Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda and sleight of hand as well as distraction, camouflage or concealment. So propaganda can not only influence users’ perception of a situation and trigger activity around it, but it also shapes how we perceive other users within the situation. A proper perceptive of the disorder would be more effectual in developing a treatment. This new phenomenon of "participatory propaganda" seeks not only to persuade users to interpret events through a particular lens, but also to manipulate relationships, dividing friends, breaking alliances and leaving individuals isolated and tractable, online and offline. Propaganda is essentially a technique of controlling attitude and it assumes greatest historical significance when carried on in a systematic manner over a long period of time by well organised groups. Stopping Fake News. These cognitions include things like memory, perception and problem-solving, and can be studied indirectly through experiments. In order to understand the effects of “rewired propaganda,” we need to look specifically at how the design of our digital information environment allows for new kinds of links between how subjects receive information and their activity after they receive it. He applied the negativity bias, which in inherent in human nature in order to achieve the desired effect. More disturbing is propaganda that seeks disconnection. More important are the ways social media and the spread of online content create opportunities for immediate action: spreading propaganda further, or taking other actions directly suggested by the propaganda. Historically, however, the means of propaganda distribution and the means of action were separate and distinct. if they are greedy or not, kind or not, coward or not. The first document signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2000 was the Information Security Doctrine, which addressed new information technologies as a potential threat to political and social stability. One of the most well-knows applications of propaganda happened during the World War II by Nazi. When we receive propaganda via social networks, we are forced to decide whether the sender should remain part of our social network. It all began with World War I. Although I wasn’t able to understand many things, it highlighted the polyphony of voices and framings. “He’s Got His Own Sea”: Political Facebook Unfriending in the Personal Public Sphere. First, it constructs the object of a conflict that can potentially divide people. Some countries, such as North Korea and Turkmenistan, disconnected their local Internet from the global infrastructure in order to maintain that isolation. Ostrovsky, A. There also exists a viewpoint that public-opinion polls could be applied to determine the opinion of the audience on certain things. These days, however, it seems that even a huge diversity of voices still does not help to challenge propaganda or increase critical thinking. The Crimea conflict found its way into one of the most intimate aspects of life. This work improves the general understanding of the propaganda and assists to realize its significance. As a result, digital participatory propaganda shapes our relationship with our environment beyond any specific topic (object); it changes the apparatus of cognitive optics that structures our perception of everyday life. In online environments, the consumption of propaganda is deeply embedded in the structure of social relations, which allows the propaganda to further infiltrate our everyday lives. This is an outcome of conflict internalization. Russian Politics, 1: 398-417. Persuasion is the tool, which is applied to make people take the necessary route, and propaganda is the means, which is applied to achieve certain benefit through the application of the misleading belief. In the course of their works they managed to match the key issues with the actual campaign. This, however, sparked a new type of propaganda that would be effective despite the lack of state control over the information environment. They may also change the structure of discourse and increase its emotional sentiment. The analysis of disconnective action should also focus on whether that type of action was driven by manipulative efforts of institutional actors, shaping our relation with the environment. For example, leaflets dropped from the air onto enemy soldiers can be viewed as a “propaganda of despair” intended to “break down the morale of the enemy,” and at the same time as a “propaganda of hope” intended to present to the enemy army and civilians a picture of a promised land they can enter if they will only lay down their arms. It was quite tricky, since the tiniest movements of my fingers would sweep past these stations, and their wavelengths sometimes changed in order to avoid being jammed by the Soviet government. The possible neuroprotective effect of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women and the role of vitamin E in slowing the progress of the disease is under investigation. Serial Position Curve A u-shape pattern of percentage recal for word memory and sequence demonstated in an experiment by B. Murdoch indicating the tendency to recall more items from the beginning and end of a list than from the middle For the first time in my life, I was actively involved in searching for news. There was no sale, but the ad was framed as one. In that way, users have an opportunity to participate in data generation, collection, and analysis. An illustration of an open call can be seen in the case of the Ukrainian I-army project launched by the Ukrainian Ministry of Information: “In one year, we created a powerful army that defends us in the Donbas area. We can wake up and fall asleep with propaganda in our hands. Nazi simply applied the negative traits of these people in order to form the negative attitude towards them. In general, the analysis have shown that since the first attempts to define the notion of propaganda nearly all the researches emphasized its effect on the cognitive abilities of people and its ability to persuade others. Through these platforms, many people who shared the same school room dozens of years ago found themselves on different sides of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. It resembles the persuasion, but the very distorted form. The latter put an emphasis on three forms of propaganda, which included white, grey and black. Because of this, when political messages including propaganda are pushed out, they can be followed by an immediate act of disconnection, particularly since other users take an active role in the generation and proliferation of the content. The Spiral of Silence is another theory, which is directly linked to the concept of propaganda. The assumption of the cognitive approach is that the mind operates in a similar way to how a computer processes information. The opposing group becomes the minority, and its effect becomes less evident to the audience. Klaus Fisher confirms this idea in his work, and states that Hitler’s thoughts about the USA were occupied by envy of its wealth and power, and he started popularizing the accusations of Anglo-American plutocracy, Bolshevism, and the ties, which unite them with Jews. The first manifestations of propaganda appeared as early as in 7000 B.C. The relationship between digital users in conflicts is an example of the subject-object relationship. It could be assumed that they strived to take maximally neutral and objective position, while defining the propaganda. It has been applied by Noelle-Neumann, while they tried to explain the reasons of human expression of the political opinions. In contrast, the participation of a user also contributes to an increase in the prominence of conflict in the user’s everyday life and specifically the way conflict-related judgments shape the users’ perception of their social circles and the environment beyond the conflict. iSpy: Surveillance and Power in the Interactive Era. Have you ever gone to a store and seen an item being sold as 2 for $2? In that way, digitally mediated participation in conflict is linked to the development of cognitive filters that shape the way we perceive social reality. The emergence of the Internet, however, challenged the capacity of state actors to isolate any environment from external information. Institute for Propaganda Analysis. New York: Basic Books. This similar feature does not make the concepts identical. Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, Volume 18, Issue 3, 78-124. Hartmann, M. (2013). That will make it easier to violate human rights — and get away with it. Mobile Media & Communication, 1(1): 42–49. Russians are Shunning State-Controlled TV for YouTube. Individuals begin to view everything through a conflict-oriented cognitive filter, including issues not at all related to the conflict.

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