Based on cross-sectional data, in this study, we investigated the effect of TCM constitution-conditioned atherosclerotic factors on cognitive impairment in the elderly population. This helps balance the internal environment and the physical constitution to create a more neutral constitution. Group-wise comparisons of enumeration data were performed using the Chi-square test. The Interaction Effect between Blood Stasis Constitution and Atherosclerotic Factors on Cognitive Impairment in Elderly People, College of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350122, China, Community Health Service Center, Luoxing Street, Mawei District, Fuzhou 350015, China, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,, A. Bozoki, B. Giordani, J. L. Heidebrink, S. Berent, and N. L. Foster, “Mild cognitive impairments predict dementia in nondemented elderly patients with memory loss,”, P. B. Gorelick, “Risk factors for vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease,”, J. Liang, X. What is Plum Flower – Stasis in the Mansion of the Blood (Xue Fu Zhu Yu Wan) Plum Flower – Stasis in the Mansion of the Blood (Xue Fu Zhu Yu Wan) is a Chinese Herbal Medicine formula for invigorating your blood circulation, breaking up general blood stagnation (especially with your Liver Organ System) , and clearing blocked meridians alleviating pain. Qi, pronounced as “chee”, is the vital energy that circulates along the whole body through pathways called meridians. A total of 135 subjects (13.0%) were characterized with cognitive impairment. Stable BS, if not intervened promptly, may block the flow of Qi and blood through main and collateral channels in a long run and exacerbate Yin-Yang-deficiency, resulting in blockade of cerebral vessels, failure of YANG-orifice nourishing, memory descent, and accelerated progression of cognitive impairment. As shown in Table 1, the rate of cognitive impairment was compared according to sex, age, smoking history, exercise habit, and education level. This study was supported by the Research Project for Traditional Chinese Medicine of Fujian Province (no. Qi deficient type. In this study, we have identified the interaction effect between BS constitution and atherosclerosis on cognitive impairment in the elderly people. NIH Interaction effect between blood stasis and atherosclerotic factors on MMSE score. Individuals with BS constitution tend to express blood high viscosity syndrome (BHVS), which is the pathological state of blood stagnation and associated with increased atherosclerosis [17]. Therefore, additional specific cognitive function testing tools will be used in our future studies. The latter refers to a pathological condition marked by unsmooth or stagnant blood flow and is a concept of pathogenesis, while the former is a pathological product which can give rise to a new disease, and a concept of etiology. As shown in Figure 2, the MMSE score in HB, ABI, and BaPWV level decreased even further in the presence of concurrent BS constitution. ABI and BaPWV: limb bilateral ABI and BaPWV were determined using an AS-1000 PWV Measurement System (Heath Digit, Hong Kong, China). Finally, a total of 1,037 eligible subjects were included into the analysis. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. In this study, we have identified the interaction effect between BS constitution and atherosclerosis on cognitive impairment in the elderly people. Neutral or Balanced Type Characteristics: •Balanced yin-yang, qi and blood, adequate essence, vitality and strong qi. In order to better present the interactions with blood stasis constitution, all subjects were assigned to two groups: BS constitution group and non-BS group (Normal + Tendency). Blood Stasis Constitution. Du, Y. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Effect of framingham risk factors on cognitive reserve,”, M. Y. Lu, “Constitution theory - the breakthrough point of Chinese Preventive Medicine Research (TCM),”, Y. U. Ruo-Xi, Y. Zhang, T. H. Liu, and Q. Wang, “Exploration of ‘constitution-aging relation’ and correlation between yin-deficiency constitution and aging,”, Y. K. Guo, X. Liu, and X. L. Cao, “Correlation study of TCM Constitution in vascular cognitive impairment population,”, Y. J. Wang, “Analysis of correlation between blood stasis syndrome and vascular damage in metabolic syndrome,”, N. Listed, “1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. Results: 2016 Feb;44(2):161-9. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-3758.2016.02.015. History of chronic illnesses: the diagnostic criteria of hypertension referred to China’s Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Hypertension (2010 edition) [8]: systolic pressure ⩾140 mmHg and/or diastolic pressure ⩾90 mmHg, or with confirmed history of hypertension, or with normal blood pressure after oral antihypertensive medication. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant. 2016;38(7):618-623. doi: 10.1080/10641963.2016.1182177. The combined and interaction effects of TCM constitution types were not considered in this study. Health Management Service Standard of Traditional Chinese Medicine,”, J. Jaccard, R. Turrisi, and C. K. Wan, “Interaction effects in multiple regression,”, H. Y. Qin, Y. L. Pi, Z. Yang et al., “A cross-sectional survey on TCM syndrome characteristics of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly in community,”, W. G. Xue, C. D. Ye, J. X. Duan et al., “Analysis on TCM constitutions of 143 cases with senile dementia,”, B. Be careful of the disease to find the door. Traumatic injury with bruising, swelling & pain. The MMSE is a brief, quantitative measure of cognitive status in adults. Related reagents were purchased from Purebio Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Ningbo, China). In previous studies, it was found that ABI and BaPWV were reliable quantitative indicators of atherosclerosis [18, 19]. It represents a tendency to the stagnation of blood and may cause atherosclerosis [7]. 2003;3:54–55. According to the 33-item questionnaire in the TCM Service Log for the Elderly issued by China TCM Administration in 2013 [13] (see Appendix 2), general information was collected, and the TCM constitution was identified. Enumeration data were presented as absolute number and rate. Individuals tend to have flabby muscles, and are introvert and timid in personality. Appendix 1-MMSE-Form. Xu X, He J, Wang S, Zhu P, Chen Q, Zhang X, Tao T, Wang H, Liu J, Wang H, Li X. Clin Exp Hypertens. Zhizhen Liu, Hongqing Yang, Mozhu Zhang, Jing Cai, Zijie Huang, "The Interaction Effect between Blood Stasis Constitution and Atherosclerotic Factors on Cognitive Impairment in Elderly People", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. Ranked data were compared with the Rank-sum test. In the present study, a total of 135 subjects (13.0%) were characterized with cognitive impairment, and 17 of those (12.6%) involved BS constitution. If it is a small blood stasis, if the big blood stasis, such as cardiovascular blocked a lot of cases, it is required to support the. MMSE score decreased with an increasing degree of BS (Table 3(b)). [Influencing factors of orthostatism brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle brachial index in the elderly]. Zheng XM, Li ZF, Wu YT, Zhao XH, Zhao HY, Jin C, Liu HM, Chen SH, An SS, Wang Y, Wu SL. The Recent Classificatio n 9 Body Constitutions Yang Qi Deficiency Deficiency Neutral Yin Deficiency Phlegm & Dampness Damp-heat Blood Stasis Special constitution Qi Stagnation 12. Note: the data are presented as number of subjects (rate, %). On the other hand, the nature of hemorheology changes with age [24]. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Results of the present study indicated that BS constitution promotes the formation of atherosclerosis through mechanisms that are different from that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors [22, 23]. Sociodemographic data are sex, age, education level, smoking (in the past 12 months), alcohol consumption (none, occasionally, often, or alcoholic), and exercise (none, occasionally, or often). These findings demonstrated that the MMSE score in HB, ABI, and BaPWV level decreased even further in the presence of concurrent BS constitution. Xu Y, Wu Y, Li J, Ma W, Guo X, Luo Y, Hu D. Hypertens Res. X. K. Zhang and L. I. Chun-Bo, “Dynamic changing of cognitive function of community elderly people,”, “National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The subgroups of BS constitution scored differently in MMSE (P<0.05). 2016 Sep 14;9(9):CD010680. The values were then subjected to stratified regression. HHS Univariate analyses showed that the BS constitution variable was associated with cognitive function significantly (P<0.05, Table 3(a)). Subjects who were < 65 years old (n=1,394) or who had incomplete data for diagnostic purposes (n=27+743) were excluded from the study. The interactions of blood stasis with HB, ABI, and BaPWV significantly impacted the MMSE score (P<0.05). Stagnant Blood can occur in the channels (usually due to trauma), or in the internal Zang Fu (Yin Yang) Organs, mainly in the Liver, Heart, Uterus, Intestines and Stomach. Epub 2016 Sep 26. A common medicine used to resolve this problem is 血府逐瘀汤 (Xue Fu Zhu Yu soup). Eligible elderly people ≥65 years old who attended physical examination in the Mawei community of Fuzhou city during 2015 were enrolled in this study.  |  Arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. Remember, body constitutions are mixed, varied in degree, and changeable. Several participants had combined unbalanced constitutions with two or more types. Logistic regression analysis indicated that RBC (odds ratio (OR)=0.530 (0.343-0.817), P=0.004), HB (OR=0.980 (0.967-0.993), P=0.003), ABI (OR=2.199(1.112-4.347), P=0.023), and blood stasis constitution (OR=1.808 (1.022-3.202), P=0.042) were correlated with cognitive impairment. By knowing your constitution, you will be able to choose your food more wisely. The blood stasis constitution has varied symptoms, and the general therapeutic principle is invigorating blood circulation to dispel stasis. (Blood stasis is often involved in dysmenorrhea, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, fibroids, cardiac events, and some cancers). Zhang [12]. Blood Stasis … The strength of the scale is the vigorous face and content validity done by the Chinese … P<0.05 was considered significant in two-tail tests. It tends to express blood stasis syndrome (BSS), a morbid state caused by blood stagnation, which is considered a link to cardiovascular disturbance. Reduced ABI and elevated BaPWV have been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular events [19, 20]. Guidelines Subcommittee,”, E. C. Ondiagnosis, “Report of the Expert Committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus,”, V. Jeney, G. Balla, and J. Balla, “Red blood cell, hemoglobin and heme in the progression of atherosclerosis,”. 2017FJZYZC101), Fujian Province Natural Science Foundation (nos. Get the latest research from NIH: Stagnant blood is different from blood stasis. In addition, reduced levels of HB and RBC closely associated with atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment in the elderly [21]. The prevalence of cognitive impairment in the elderly people was 13.0%. Age distribution. Objective. The reference value of BaPWV was set at 14.00 m/s; a higher value indicated a stiffer arterial wall. Quantitative data with a normal distribution were presented as the mean ± standard deviation, whereas quantitative data that did not meet a normal distribution were presented as the median and interquartile range. Compared with individuals in the group with normal cognitive function, individuals in the cognitive impairment group had a higher BaPWV level (P < 0.05) and reduced levels of RBC, HB, and ABI (P < 0.05) (Table 2). Results. 2017;38(3):443–450. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Quantitative data that did not meet a normal distribution were compared using Rank-sum test. Although the cross-sectional data provided characteristics of TCM constitution of cognitive impairment in the elderly, the effect of early factors on TCM constitution is missed, and the current data fail to evaluate the reliability of all influencing factors. Oppositely, blood stasis can be caused by too much of the same movement. Fixed abdominal masses. Crawford F, Welch K, Andras A, Chappell FM. Trials. A patient with a sum of BCQs scores ≥26.5 was considered to have a stasis constitution [ 35 ]. The Yu-Zhi (YZ) constitution is one of the TCM body constitutions and represents a tendency to stasis or stagnation. Blood stasis (BS) constitution represents a tendency to stagnation and positively associates with the severity of atherosclerosis. Blood stasis (BS) constitution represents a tendency to stagnation and positively associates with the severity of atherosclerosis. Stasis in the Mansion of Blood Teapills. Easily agitated, forgetful, cannot endure cold environments, and susceptible to lumps in … Fasting venous blood (5 ml) was drawn from all subjects. Gender distribution. The “English version Constitution in Traditional Chinese Medicine Questionnaire” is an effective research tool to carry out a large-scale research. Internal or external ulcerations. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000143318.70292.47. Exploration of ‘constitution-aging relation’ and correlation between yin-deficiency constitution and aging. in 1975[11], is the most common tool for the screening of cognitive impairment. Red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HB), ankle brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BaPWV), and blood stasis (BS) were significantly different between normal and cognitive impairment group (P<0.05). The predictive value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in coronary atherosclerosis and peripheral artery diseases in urban Chinese patients. According to the China Association for Traditional Chinese Medicine (CACM), body constitution can be divided into nine types, named as neutral, qi deficiency, yang deficiency, yin deficiency, blood stasis, phlegm & dampness, damp-heat, qi stagnation and special constitution. J Neurol Sci. Copyright © 2018 Zhizhen Liu et al. Find the one or two that says the most about you. It can be used to screen for cognitive impairment, to estimate the severity of cognitive impairment at a given point in time, to follow the course of cognitive changes in an individual over time, and to document an individual's response to treatment. The interactions of blood stasis with HB, ABI, and BaPWV significantly impacted the MMSE score (P<0.05). This can occur as sluggish circulation, localized coagulations or fixed masses. Criteria for the identification of biased constitution were as follows: “Yes” if the cumulative score of all items ⩾11; “Tendency” if the cumulative score of all items =9-10; “No” if the cumulative score of all items ⩽ 8. Stroke. Risk factors for vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease. Blood Stasis. And you definitely don’t want your blood to stagnate – it can be MOST uncomfortable! 5. Diagnosis of collinearity indicated that no significant collinearity existed among the studied factors. At present, one of the major challenges in public health is to identify the risk of cognitive impairment in elderly populations and to take proper preventive measures, for maximizing benefits and minimizing the risk for the elderly population.

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