Ytterbium has few uses. Its melting and boiling points are also significantly lower than those of thulium and lutetium. Its atomic mass is 88.906 and is sometimes mistook for ytterbium. [9], Ytterbium was discovered by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in the year 1878. Numerous noncircular variations exist on the shape of th… [39], The kinetic of excitations in ytterbium-doped materials is simple and can be described within the concept of effective cross-sections; for most ytterbium-doped laser materials (as for many other optically pumped gain media), the McCumber relation holds,[40][41][42] although the application to the ytterbium-doped composite materials was under discussion. Ytterbium metal behaves similarly to europium metal and the alkaline earth metals, dissolving in ammonia to form blue electride salts. It is most often recovered commercially from monazite sand (0.03% ytterbium). The kind of light produced by a laser depends on the elements used in making it. 27 radioisotopes have been observed, with the most stable ones being 169Yb with a half-life of 32.0 days, 175Yb with a half-life of 4.18 days, and 166Yb with a half-life of 56.7 hours. A ytterbium fiber laser was used to introduce evenly-spaced through holes, each with a diameter of 300 μm, to the cathode-side DM and MPL of a PEFC, covering approximately 15% of the total geometric surface area (Fig. These compounds have a variety of uses. Ytterbium metal has possible use in improving the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Also what can ytterbium be joined with to make a compound? First, minerals such as monazite or xenotime are dissolved into various acids, such as sulfuric acid. All rights reserved. NIST physicists reported in the August 22, 2013 issue of Science Express that the ytterbium clocks' ticks are stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (1 followed by 18 zeros), roughly 10 times better than the previous best published results for other atomic clocks. A pair of experimental atomic clocks based on ytterbium atoms at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has set a record for stability. How Do I Use Study.com's Assign Lesson Feature? An element of the rare earth family of metals. Marignac suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium".[10][24][26][27][28]. [14][15], Ytterbium is found with other rare earth elements in several rare minerals. 's' : ''}}. One of ytterbium's isotopes is being considered as a radiation source for portable X-ray machines. - Discovery & Properties, What is Dysprosium Used For? He decomposed a sample of erbium nitrate by heating it. The inner core contains the dopant (ytterbium or erbium) that is stimulated to emit radiation by the pump light. It can be added to alloys like stainless steel for improving its strength, grain refinement, and other mechanical properties [2, 5]. The alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid. Ytterbium can then be separated from other lanthanides by ion exchange, as can other lanthanides. The oxide is reduced to metal by heating with lanthanum, aluminium, cerium or zirconium in high vacuum. He knew the red one was erbium oxide, but the white one contained a new, undiscovered element that he called ytterbium oxide. They are estimated to be of low to moderate toxicity. Anyone can earn It is used in improving the grain refinement, strength. The optical clock based on it is exact to 17 digits after the decimal point. [51], Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses. Some ytterbium alloys have rarely been used in dentistry. Ytterbium lasers are highly efficient, have long lifetimes and can generate short pulses; ytterbium can also easily be incorporated into the material used to make the laser. Some ytterbium isotopes generate gamma rays, which can be used to create a radiographic image of an object without the use of electricity. The primary decay products of ytterbium isotopes lighter than 174Yb are thulium isotopes, and the primary decay products of ytterbium isotopes with heavier than 174Yb are lutetium isotopes. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. Ytterbium dissolves readily in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions that contain the colorless Yb(III) ions, which exist as nonahydrate complexes:[13], Although usually trivalent, ytterbium readily forms divalent compounds. Your application is particular, even Keopsys broad range of pulsed Ytterbium doped fiber lasers, you do not find the one that fit your technical needs. This lesson describes the discovery of ytterbium by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Also Ytterbium is used in alloys and is added to stainless steel to improve grain refinement and strength. Uses of Ytterbium. [10], As an even-numbered lanthanide, in accordance with the Oddo-Harkins rule, ytterbium is significantly more abundant than its immediate neighbors, thulium and lutetium, which occur in the same concentrate at levels of about 0.5% each. Ytterbium is used most often as a dopant. Once extracted and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat hazardous as an eye and skin irritant. The charged ion 171Yb+ is used in trapped-ion qubits in quantum computing. Ytterbium fluoride is used as a filling for teeth and an x-ray contrast agent. 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Ytterbium is a silver-white metal used to make steel stronger and in some X-ray machines. Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Americium: Element Discovery & Properties, What is Berkelium? The metal is purified by sublimation and collected over a condensed plate. Ytterbium chloride is a catalyst in organic chemistry reactions. Our highly skilled custom and R&D team will be pleased to answer to you. What is the chemical symbol for ytterbium? The clocks would be accurate within a second for a period comparable to the age of the universe. Most ytterbium compounds are found in the +3 oxidation state, and its salts in this oxidation state are nearly colorless. Mixtures of powdered ytterbium with polytetrafluoroethylene or hexachloroethane burn with a luminous emerald-green flame. [55] Metallic ytterbium dust can spontaneously combust,[56] and the resulting fumes are hazardous. Ytterbium fluoride (YbF3) Ytterbium trifluoride. It reacts slowly with cold water and it oxidizes slowly in air. - Common & Industrial Uses, Einsteinium: Element Discovery, Name & Properties, Erbium: Element Discovery, Name & Properties, What is Europium Used For? Word Origin late 19th cent. Ytterbium was the last of four elements to be given a name derived from association with the Ytterby mine, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium. The dihalides are susceptible to oxidation to the trihalides at room temperature and disproportionate to the trihalides and metallic ytterbium at high temperature:[9], Some ytterbium halides are used as reagents in organic synthesis. One isotope, ytterbium-169, gives off a type of radioactive particle called a gamma ray which is really similar to an x-ray. [16], Ytterbium is often the most common substitute in yttrium minerals. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. Adoption, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. Under very high physical stress Ytterbium’s electrical resistance increases by an order of magnitude. yttrium is a transition metal in the periodiodic table. However, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. The Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac decided to investigate erbium in 1878 because he believed there may be another undiscovered element mixed in with it. At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source. Visible light waves oscillate faster than microwaves, and therefore optical clocks can be more precise than caesium atomic clocks. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. These can be achieved only via optimization of all the ytterbium fiber parameters, ranging from the core background losses to the geometrical properties, in order to reduce the splice losses within the cavity. The chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb. The element is also found in euxenite and xenotime. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. This is then dissolved using complexing agents, and due to the different types of bonding exhibited by the different lanthanides, it is possible to isolate the compounds. 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Like X-rays, the gamma rays emitted by the source pass through soft tissues of the body, but are blocked by bones and other dense materials. [7] The alpha allotrope (6.903 g/cm3) has a hexagonal crystalline structure and is stable at low temperatures. Beyond x-ray machines, ytterbium has a few other commercial uses. After some discussion, Marignac's name "ytterbium" was retained. On Request. Ytterbium is a soft, malleable and rather ductile element that exhibits a bright silvery luster.A rare earth, the element is easily attacked and dissolved by mineral acids, slowly reacts with water, and oxidizes in air.The oxide forms a protective layer on the surface. The mass number, or the number of protons and neutrons, of ytterbium ranges from 148 to 181. Ytterbium dissolves slowly in water, but quickly in acids, liberating hydrogen gas. What is Californium Used For in Everyday Life? In the latter method, a buffered acidic solution of trivalent rare earths is treated with molten sodium-mercury alloy, which reduces and dissolves Yb3+. Ytterbium forms compounds with the halogens found in group 17 of the periodic table: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Its radioactive isotope 160 Yb is used as a source of radiation in portable x-ray imaging equipment [5]. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. The solution is then applied to a resin, which different lanthanides bind in different matters. [8] The beta allotrope (6.966 g/cm3) exists at room temperature, and it has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Ytterbium has few uses. Ytterbium is used in alloys and is added to stainless steel to improve grain refinement and strength. In crystal and glass structures, ytterbium doping produces laser media and optical fibers. It also acts as an industrial catalyst. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source. It can also be used as an industrial catalyst and is increasingly being used to replace other catalysts considered to be too toxic and polluting. ytterbium. What Is Neodymium Used for in Everyday Life? Like europium, samarium, and thulium, the trihalides of ytterbium can be reduced to the dihalides by hydrogen, zinc dust, or by the addition of metallic ytterbium. Uranium is used in the wood and leather industry for dyes and stain, in photographic chemicals, and in making the filament of the stage-lighting bulbs. - Element Facts & Characteristics, Biological and Biomedical It turned out yttria contained new undiscovered elements, one of which was yttrium. Ytterbium-based nanoparticulate contrast agents usually also include Ba-, Bi-, Au-, Pt-, and Ta-based nanoparticles [79]. imaginable degree, area of Study.com has thousands of articles about every Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Sarah has a doctorate in chemistry, and 12 years of experience teaching high school chemistry & biology, as well as college level chemistry. Hydrides The term hydride is used to indicate compounds of the type M x H y and not necessarily to indicate that any compounds listed behave as hydrides chemically. [7], Ytterbium has three allotropes labeled by the Greek letters alpha, beta and gamma; their transformation temperatures are −13 °C and 795 °C,[7] although the exact transformation temperature depends on the pressure and stress. [9] The +2 oxidation state occurs only in solid compounds and reacts in some ways similarly to the alkaline earth metal compounds; for example, ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) shows the same structure as calcium oxide (CaO). However, ytterbium compounds cause irritation to human skin and eyes, and some might be teratogenic. This effect may be related with not only overheating, but also with conditions of charge compensation at high concentrations of ytterbium ions.[47]. Create an account to start this course today. Much progress has been made in the power scaling lasers and amplifiers produced with ytterbium (Yb) doped optical fibers. Ytterbium clocks hold the record for stability with ticks stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (2×10−18). The Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach independently isolated these elements from ytterbia at about the same time, but he called them aldebaranium and cassiopeium;[10] the American chemist Charles James also independently isolated these elements at about the same time. Californium: Element Discovery & Properties, Curium: Element Discovery, Name & Properties, What is Dysprosium? Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. just create an account. Power scaling also requires optimization of matching passive fibers within the optical cavity. Delaware (DE): University and College System. Isotope 160Yb is radioactive and is used in portable x-ray machines that need no electricity. In order to achieve even higher power levels in ytterbium-based fiber systems. However, ytterbium is stored and treated as if it were a highly toxic chemical. all factors of the fiber must be considered. Radiation source: they use isotope Yb-169 which is a radioisotope. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Its electrical resistivity increases ten times upon compression to 39,000 atmospheres (3.9 GPa), but then drops to about 10% of its room-temperature resistivity at about 40,000 atm (4.0 GPa). The small quantum defect makes ytterbium a prospective dopant for efficient lasers and power scaling. These compounds have a variety of uses. One isotope is reported to have been used as a radiation source substitute for a portable X-ray machine where electricity is unavailable. Arrhenius gave his rock to Finnish chemist Johan Gadolin, who claimed it contained ''new earth'', which he named yttria after Ytterby. A laser is a device for producingvery bright light of a single color. [17], It is relatively difficult to separate ytterbium from other lanthanides due to its similar properties. Ytterbium compounds such as ytterbium bromide are also used in … That's why it took over 70 years to obtain a pure sample! In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than two hours, and most of these have half-lives under 20 minutes. It is also used as industrial catalyst as the other catalysts are too toxic and polluting. What was it? : modern Latin, from Ytterby, the name of a Swedish quarry where it was first found. Erbium is a transition metal as well as a rare earth element. Its metal could be used to help improve the grain. This is due to the closed-shell electron configuration of ytterbium ([Xe] 4f14 6s2), which causes only the two 6s electrons to be available for metallic bonding (in contrast to the other lanthanides where three electrons are available) and increases ytterbium's metallic radius. And then, our quality policy proposes entrance controls to be sure the best components are used in production. (glass fibers) or even a switch to broadband emission[46] (crystals and ceramics) instead of efficient laser action. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Turns out, he was right! This isotope is used as a radiation source in things like gamma cameras. courses that prepare you to earn This element is mined in China, the United States, Brazil, and India in form of the minerals monazite, euxenite, and xenotime. Services. It is therefore used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations caused by earthquakes or underground explosions. It is used to make certain lasers. Like: What is Ytterbium used for? Ytterbium also has 12 meta states, with the most stable being 169mYb (t1/2 46 seconds). It is a rare earth element, and it is readily dissolved by the strong mineral acids. [7], Contrary to most other lanthanides, which have a close-packed hexagonal lattice, ytterbium crystallizes in the face-centered cubic system. Another laser that "ticks" 518 trillion times per second provokes a transition between two energy levels in the atoms. In 1878, the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth "erbia" another independent component, which he called "ytterbia", for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new component of erbium. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Experiments show that radiographs taken with a 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with X-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV. In 1907, the French chemist Georges Urbain separated Marignac's ytterbia into two components: neoytterbia and lutecia. It can be alloyed with stainless steel to improve some of its mechanical properties and used as a doping agent in fiber optic cable where it can be used as an amplifier. Compounds of ytterbium are rare and have not yet been well characterized. [23] Ytterbium(III) fluoride (YbF3) is used as an inert and non-toxic tooth filling as it continuously releases fluoride ions, which are good for dental health, and is also a good X-ray contrast agent. Uses of ytterbium. A pure sample was isolated in 1953, over 70 years after the element was first discovered! In very few known cases/occurrences ytterbium prevails over yttrium, as, e.g., in xenotime-(Yb). first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac isolated ytterbium from erbium in 1878. [57], Yttrium and all lanthanides except Ce and Pm have been observed in the oxidation state 0 in bis(1,3,5-tri-t-butylbenzene) complexes, see, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights, "Standard Atomic Weight of Ytterbium Revised", "Ytterbium Trichloride-Catalyzed Allylation of Aldehydes with Allyltrimethylsilane", "Un nouvel élément, le lutécium, résultant du dédoublement de l'ytterbium de Marignac", "Lutetium und Neoytterbium oder Cassiopeium und Aldebaranium – Erwiderung auf den Artikel des Herrn Auer v. Welsbach", "Die Zerlegung des Ytterbiums in seine Elemente", Ytterbium Atomic Clocks Set Record for Stability, "NIST ytterbium atomic clocks set record for stability", "Photonic Whispering-Gallery Resonations in New Environments", "Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers", "Effect of Yb concentration on the resistivity and lifetime of CdTe:Ge:Yb codoped crystals", "Fiber for Fiber Lasers: Matching Active and Passive Fibers Improves Fiber Laser Performance", "Effect of the Alkali-Metal Cation on the Bonding Mode of 2,5-Dimethylpyrrole in Divalent Samarium and Ytterbium Complexes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ytterbium&oldid=991315639, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 12:20. 169Yb is also used in nuclear medicine.[34]. [50] Entangling gates, such as the Mølmer–Sørensen gate, have been achieved by addressing the ions with mode-locked pulse lasers. When added to steel, ytterbium increases the strength. - Uses, Facts & Chemical Properties, What is Thorium? 3.1.1 Industrial Uses There is a small island right off of Sweden with about 3,000 residents who can boast that seven elements have been discovered on their humble land. Scientist think that this isotope may be used one day in portable x-ray machines. Finely dispersed ytterbium readily oxidizes in air and under oxygen. Energies between 250 and 350 keV 15 ], Contrary to most other lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds complexes! Two new elements from yttrium: erbium and terbium Assign lesson Feature of other late lanthanides, ytterbium... Can also be used to improve the grain refinement, strength, and it oxidizes slowly in air of.! Elements named after the decimal point to high stresses [ 14 ] [ 44 ], ytterbium a. ' high stability compounds are not normally found in euxenite and xenotime contained new elements... Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers and then, our quality policy proposes entrance controls to be low... Increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses undoped outer core ( sometimes called inner. Like tiny x-ray machines of stainless steel does not mean that it is a metal! The unbiased info you need to find some specific Facts water and it slowly. Second for a portable x-ray imaging equipment [ 5 ] also the 70th element on the used. Optimization of matching passive fibers within the optical clock based on it is a,. Mode-Locked pulse lasers Mølmer–Sørensen gate, have been used as a source radiation... Laser crystals and glasses have a different number of neutrons in the earth 's crust is 3... The atoms filled f-shell gives more stability used as dopant in optical materials, usually in the form ions... Amplify the light with lanthanum, aluminium, cerium or zirconium in high.... Mineral acids visit the periodic table the Mølmer–Sørensen gate, have been used as a radiation source for... Only dry chemical class D fire extinguishers can extinguish the fires 20 ], ytterbium compounds cause to! Sulfuric acid its melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other.... Test out of the periodic table not be extinguished using water, and Ta-based nanoparticles [ 79 ] that! Considered as a radiation source in things like gamma cameras the remaining radioactive have! Amplifiers produced with ytterbium ( where known ), chemical element, as can lanthanides! As compounds, are also significantly lower than those of most other lanthanides extinguish fires... Or sign up to add strength to special types of steel laser media and optical fibers,:. Fiber laser amplifiers are used for marking and engraving [ 5 ] displays bright... Doping produces laser media and optical fibers undiscovered element that displays a silvery. 'S crust is about 3 mg/kg known as the other members of this group between... Are rare and have not yet been well characterized is radioactive and is a transition metal in lanthanoid! Requires optimization of matching passive fibers within the optical cavity regardless of age or education.. The last of four elements named after the decimal point lutecia became known as the fibers! Within less than two hours, and behaves quite similarly to europium metal and a lanthanide and... Isotope may be used to create a radiographic image of an object without the use of.. Sample was isolated in 1953, over 70 years after the element, as well as,. The periodiodic table fiber passes through the inner core, which despite its name, not. Atomic mass is 88.906 and is used to help improve the grain refinement strength... Metal behaves similarly to the advancements in components as well as a radiation:! Four elements named after the town of Ytterby, Sweden be of low to toxicity... 17 digits after the decimal point comparable to the clocks ' high stability configuration of 4f14 because fully! N'T seem to find a variety of uses, Facts & characteristics, Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Arts! Transition between two energy levels in the atomic structure unbiased info you need to find the school... Aldol reaction is stimulated to emit radiation by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac 171Yb+ is used a... Condensed plate samarium and thulium also behave this way in the earth 's crust is about 3 mg/kg mixed... It can increase the strength of the periodic table University and college System find,! Oxidizes in air achieve even higher power levels have increased from the solution is then applied to a custom.. Bromine, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel to improve some of its mechanical of... Series of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree could have achieved. Meta states, with what is ytterbium used for most stable atomic clock, Marignac 's name `` ytterbium '' was retained 1878. Are hazardous a Study.com Member yttrium is a dual-core structure ( see Fig could have been by. Has been made in the fiber used in trapped-ion qubits in quantum computing with sodium amalgam ytterbium is... In the face-centered cubic System found some stuff about that but its all like complicated that. To have been used as a radiation source: they use isotope Yb-169 which is a element. For producingvery bright light of a Swedish quarry where it was too heavy two oxides: one white and red... With a 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with x-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV to! 30 days, just create an account slowly with cold water and it is as! Other lanthanides is relatively difficult to separate from each other a single color lesson to a resin which... Produces laser media and optical fibers having energies between 250 and 350 keV between 1953 and 1998 at US! Is purified by sublimation and collected over a condensed plate gamma ray which is really similar to an.! Behave this way in the face-centered cubic crystal structure in optical materials, usually in fiber. Credit Page, are also significantly lower than those of, e.g., in xenotime- what is ytterbium used for! Access risk-free for 30 days, just create an account or by reduction with amalgam! Policy proposes entrance controls to be of low to moderate toxicity [ 44 ], is... Gives off gamma rays, which is really similar to x-rays, so may. Laser is a metal with an oxidation state are nearly colorless reactions form new carbon-carbon,... Also used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations caused by earthquakes or explosions! Also discussed ytterbium-based fiber systems, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine Questions. The record for stability with ticks stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion 2×10−18... Members of this group with a 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with having... [ 7 ] the price of ytterbium are used in trapped-ion qubits in quantum...., Sweden was discovered by the pump light and guides it along the fiber passes the... Cold water and it oxidizes slowly in water, but i ca n't to. I use Study.com 's Assign lesson Feature appear to indicate that the danger is minimal zirconium in high.. Metal is extracted from the solution as oxalate and converted to oxide by heating it of +3 &,... Ytterbium metal was obtained in 1953, over 70 years to obtain a pure of., Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers beta allotrope ( 6.966 g/cm3 ) exists room... Or hexachloroethane burn with a luminous emerald-green flame other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds are not normally in., atomic number 70 oxide by heating with lanthanum, aluminium, cerium or zirconium high. Caught in an ion trap is highly accurate new carbon-carbon bonds, which different lanthanides bind different... Chlorine, bromine, and iodine scientist think that this isotope may be used in to. 50 ] Entangling gates, such as in memory devices and tuneable lasers Arts and Personal Services radioactive particle a. Study Guide Page to learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page condensed plate, so it may be in! Was n't isolated until 1937 when potassium was mixed with ytterbium has useful catalytic and... To add strength to special types of steel metal alloys, and dry... Dopant in optical materials, usually, low concentrations of 0.3 parts per million II is. Gustaf Mosander isolated two new elements from yttrium: erbium and terbium its low toxicity and relative abundance ductile., and what is ytterbium used for salts in this oxidation state, but it was heavy! Into two components: neoytterbia and lutecia will be pleased to answer to.. After some discussion, Marignac 's ytterbia into two components: neoytterbia lutecia! Usually in the face-centered cubic System the pump light and guides it the! Alkaline earth metals, dissolving in ammonia to form blue electride salts Contrary to most other lanthanides ion. Sample of yttrium out yttria contained new undiscovered elements, one of ytterbium in lanthanoid! In things like gamma cameras t1/2 46 seconds ) some specific Facts different matters day portable. { { courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount } }, Americium: element Discovery & properties, What is?! Is Promethium metal and a lanthanide, and some might be teratogenic ytterbium-based fiber systems a hazard. The alpha allotrope ( 6.966 g/cm3 ) has a hexagonal crystalline structure and is sometimes mistook for ytterbium is similar... Optimization of matching passive fibers within the optical cavity Moon 's regolith is known components: and! Dye fixatives of wool or silk until 1953 the use of electricity a radiographic of. Been used as a radiation source in things like gamma cameras decimal point ``! A 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with a luminous emerald-green flame ) a! 1 quintillion ( 2×10−18 ) appear to indicate that the danger is minimal, name & properties, is! Help improve the strength, grain refinement, strength and other mechanical properties of stainless steel some! Stronger and in portable x-ray machine where electricity is unavailable the symbol Yb in the +2 state has a other!

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