Her early courtly poetry is marked by her knowledge of aristocratic custom and fashion of the day, particularly involving women and the practice of chivalry. Of the many refutations of de Meun, Christine de Pisan's The Book of the City of Ladies (1405) stands out for its eloquence, its strong refutation of the medieval stereotypical woman, and the uniqueness of its author. For example, Rousseau viewed Machiavelli’s work as a satirical piece in which Machiavelli exposes the faults of one-man rule rather than exalting amorality. The literature of the Renaissance was written within the general movement of the Renaissance that arose in 13th century Italy and continued until the 16th century while being diffused into the western world. ." It’s just the way people talk in day-to-day life. Fourthly, renaissance proved an impetus to vernacular literature. The Renaissance is one of the most interesting and disputed periods of European history. Fourteenth-century English literature emerged from a medieval tradition vastly different from that of the French and Italian literatures. Died c. 1430 William Langland and Chaucer were profoundly influenced by Boccaccio. Female Readers. The source for these works expanded beyond works of theology and towards the pre-Christian eras of Imperial Rome and Ancient Greece. The dates Bruni used to define the periods are not exactly what modern historians use today, but he laid the conceptual groundwork for a tripartite division of history. Dante's Divine Comedy (circa 1308-1321) is an allegorical trilogy that describes one man's journey through Hell, Purgatory and Paradise. Humanism is an educational and cultural philosophy that began in the Renaissance when scholars rediscovered Greek and Roman classical philoso…, THE LITERARY WORK The Renaissance is commonly defined as a period of artistic, cultural, and philosophical rebirth of classical ideas and art forms, although the period also saw the development of new ideas, artistic conventions, and technologies. He was condemned to perpetual exile; if he returned to Florence without paying a fine, he could be burned at the stake. She maintains a dialogue with three celestial ladies: Reason, Prudence, and Justice. By 1300 most European merchants were literate, and by 1500 many of their wives could also read and write. Written in the 13th century, The Romance of the Rose satirizes the conventions of courtly love while critically depicting women as nothing more than seducers. Christianity remained a major influence for artists and authors, with the classics coming into their own as a second primary influence. Christine’s participation in a literary debate, in 1401–1402, allowed her to move beyond the courtly circles, and ultimately to establish her status as a writer concerned with the position of women in society. Petrarch is known as the “Father of Humanism.” In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, authors across Europe began to write popular works in the vernacular. In 1927, he wrote that: Template:Blockquote British art historian Kenneth Clark wrote that Western Europe's first "great age of civilisation" was ready to begin around the year 1000. Vernacular German had been used in the many local chanceries for centuries, but rather than standardize the chancery dialects, printers usually employed the dialect of the local chancery. The creation of the printing press (using movable type) by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1450s encouraged authors to write in their local vernacular rather than in Greek or Latin classical languages, widening the reading audience and promoting the spread of Renaissance ideas. In order to support herself and her family, Christine turned to writing. In contrast to Plato and Aristotle, Machiavelli insisted that an imaginary ideal society is not a model by which a prince should orient himself. 1560) and Philip Sidney (b. The Humanist Francesco Petrarch, a key figure in the renewed sense of scholarship, was also an accomplished poet, publishing several important works of poetry in Italian as well as Latin. Northern European schools served mainly to educate young boys for a career in the church. Vernacular definition, (of language) native to a place (opposed to literary). In French, there was an enormous growth in vernacular literature from the 11th century onwards; in German, from the 12th century onwards. Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri, often simply referred to as Dante, was a famous Italian poet during the Renaissance. Villon was a tavern brawler who killed a man in a 1455 fight. Petrarch's vernacular works are more secular than Dante's works. Discuss the significance of Christine de Pizan’s work. Petrarch’s disciple, Giovanni Boccaccio, became a major author in his own right. On the other hand, many commentators, such as Baruch Spinoza, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Denis Diderot, have argued that Machiavelli was actually a republican, even when writing The Prince, and his writings were an inspiration to Enlightenment proponents of modern democratic political philosophy. The ideas characterizing the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, in particular in the writings of Dante Alighieri (1265–1321) and Petrarch (1304–1374). The impact of the Renaissance varied across the continent; countries that were predominantly Catholic or predominantly Protestant experienced the Renaissance differently. Encyclopedia.com. Villon was speaking from personal experience. In Prague, the Bohemian intellectual Jan Hus had sought church reform. The Welshman in England was provided with a bilingual dictionary as early as 1547, by William Salesbury. New literary genres such as the essay and new metrical forms such as the sonnet and Spenserian stanza made their appearance. Machiavelli’s best-known book, The Prince, contains several maxims concerning politics. Bruni argued that Italy had revived in recent centuries and could therefore be described as entering a new age. In European literature, the growth of vernacular literature predates the Renaissance. Renaissance literature is characterized by the adoption of a Humanist philosophy and the recovery of the classical literature of Antiquity, and benefited from the spread of printing in the latter part of the 15th century. Machiavelli believed that a leader had to understand public and private morality as two different things in order to rule well. Villon wrote a poem from prison that emphasized the physical sufferings of the downtrodden. His peasant hero criticized worldly injustice, the pain of plagues and wars, and the general poverty of the peasants. No attempts were made to create a uniform written language in all of the chanceries until the rule of Emperor Maximilian I in the early sixteenth century. As a political theorist, Machiavelli emphasized the occasional need for the methodical exercise of brute force or deceit, including extermination of entire noble families to head off any chance of a challenge to the prince’s authority. “Machiavellianism” is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Renaissance literature is literature that was created in Europe, during the Renaissance. Learn vernacular literature with free interactive flashcards. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Earl Jeffrey Richards, ed., Reinterpreting Christine de Pisan (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992). Despite the Pagan beliefs at the core of the Genealogia deorum gentilium, Boccaccio believed that much could be learned from antiquity. He had studied at the University of Paris, but his poor upbringing rendered him out of place in academe. In this particular text, Christine argues that women must recognize and promote their ability to make peace between people. But she did not assert her intellectual abilities, or establish her authority as a writer, until she was widowed at the age of 25. Hamilton learned from Machiavelli about the importance of foreign policy for domestic policy, but may have broken from him regarding how rapacious a republic needed to be in order to survive. Like the Bavarian knight Wolfram von Eschenbach, who wrote Parzival in the late twelfth century or early thirteenth century, Langland remained tolerant toward Muslims at a time when most authors condemned them. These elites read and wrote Latin, the language of the church and the universities. Much of the impetus for her writing came from her need to earn a living to support her mother, a niece, and her two surviving children. With the fear of contagion a distant bad memory, and people eager to get out of their homes and see more of the world, internationa… A copy was also possessed by the Catholic king and emperor Charles V. In France, after an initially mixed reaction, Machiavelli came to be associated with Catherine de’ Medici and the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. The church and “grammar” schools taught students Latin, whereas abacus schools taught in the local dialects. He asserted that violence may be necessary for the successful stabilization of power and introduction of new legal institutions. Home; English Toggle Dropdown. He even seemed to endorse it in some situations. C hristine de Pisan was the first known woman in Europe to e…, The body of medieval Latin literature would be rather small if it were limited to literature in its narrower and more usual meaning of belles-lettres…, Petrarch, or Francesco Petrarca, the Italian humanist, poet, and scholar, was born in Arezzo into an exiled Florentine family. Certain scholars have argued that she should be seen as an early feminist who efficiently used language to convey that women could play an important role within society. The Decameron in particular and Boccaccio’s work in general were a major source of inspiration and plots for many English authors in the Renaissance, including Geoffrey Chaucer and William Shakespeare. Réception du traité Sur la génération et la corruption, ed. Italian prose of the 13th century was as abundant and varied as its poetry. Writing for an Audience. Finally, the Renaissance spawned the great creative vernacular literature of the late 16th century: the earthy fantasies of RABELAIS, the worldly essays of MONTAIGNE, the probing analysis of the human condition in the plays of William SHAKESPEARE. This is not to say that no religious works were published in this period; Dante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy reflects a distinctly medieval world view. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). 1554–d. 1586) enlisted it, along with the other resources of humanism, in the establishment of vernacular traditions of literature and criticism. Dante offers poignant criticism of church authorities and a descriptive analysis of social and political problems within his profoundly Christian poem. Petrarch’s disciple, Giovanni Boccaccio, became a major author in his own right, whose major work, A generation before Petrarch and Boccaccio, Dante Alighieri set the stage for Renaissance literature with his. As a young man, Petrarch wrote stunning love poetry in a four-teen-line format that has come to be known as the Italian, or Petrarchan, sonnet. Lire Aristote au Moyen Age et à la Renaissance. They were not bound to Scholastic traditions of logical analysis of recognized authorities. The British writer Geoffrey Chaucer, later that century, composed his works in Middle English, the dominant language of his time. Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron, translated by Guido Waldman, edited by Jonathan Usher (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998). He became Library and Internet resources about medieval literature in European vernacular languages. Petrarch and other Italian urbanites of the fourteenth century shared a kindred spirit with the great urban cultures of classical Athens and Republican Rome.